In big ip configuration, object names are not only a label but unique ID!
Route domains are quite different because it has an id which is used anywhere in the configuration.
It can’t be renamed but as the name is not used as reference in other objects, you can try to change it in bigip_base.conf then reload config...
I never tried it so create a backup first!
I hope you’re not asking to rename a partition!
I had the same need and I finally made it, here is the process I found:
touch /service/mcpd/forceload (to force bigip use text config)
I can't say it fit to "not intrusive" but it works.