The proxy buffer is probably the least intuitive of the three TCP buffer sizes that you can configure in F5's TCP Optimization offering. Today I'll describe what it does, and how to set the "high" and "low" buffer limits in the profile.
The proxy buffer is the place BIG-IP stores data that isn't ready to go out to the remote host. The send buffer, by definition, is data already sent but unacknowledged. Everything else is in the proxy buffer. That's really all there is to it.
From this description, it should be clear why we need limits on the size of this buffer. Probably the most common deployment of a BIG-IP has a connection to the server that is way faster than the connection to the client. In these cases, data will simply accumulate at the BIG-IP as it waits to pass through the bottleneck of the client connection. This consumes precious resources on the BIG-IP, instead of commodity servers.
So proxy-buffer-high is simply a limit where the BIG-IP will tell the server, "enough." proxy-buffer-low is when it will tell the server to start sending data again. The gap between the two is simply hysteresis: if proxy-buffer-high were the same as proxy-buffer-low, we'd generate tons of start/stop signals to the server as the buffer level bounced above and below the threshold. We like that gap to be about 64KB, as a rule of thumb.
So how does it tell the server to stop? TCP simply stops increasing the receive window: once advertised bytes avaiable have been sent, TCP will advertise a zero receive window. This stops server transmissions (except for some probes) until the BIG-IP signals it is ready again by sending an acknowledgment with a non-zero receive window advertisement.
Setting a very large proxy-buffer-high will obviously increase the potential memory footprint of each connection. But what is the impact of setting a low one?
On the sending side, the worst-case scenario is that a large chunk of the send buffer clears at once, probably because a retransmitted packet allows acknowledgement of a missing packet and a bunch of previously received data. At worst, this could cause the entire send buffer to empty and cause the sending TCP to ask the proxy buffer to accept a whole send buffer's worth of data. So if you're not that worried about the memory footprint, the safe thing is to set proxy-buffer-high to the same size as the send buffer.
The limits on proxy-buffer-low are somewhat more complicated to derive, but the issue is that if a proxy buffer at proxy-buffer-low suddenly drains, it will take one serverside Round Trip Time (RTT) to send the window update and start getting data again. So the total amount of data that has to be in the proxy buffer at the low point is the RTT of the serverside times the bandwidth of the clientside. If the proxy buffer is filling up, the serverside rate generally exceeds the clientside data rate, so that will be sufficient.
If you're not deeply concerned about the memory footprint of connections, the minimum proxy buffer settings that will prevent any impairment of throughput are as follows for the clientside:
proxy-buffer-low must be sufficiently below proxy-buffer-high to avoid flapping.
If you are running up against memory limits, then cutting back on these settings will only hurt you in the cases above. Economizing on proxy buffer space is definitely preferable to limiting the send rate by making the send buffer too small.